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Universe

Ten most common elements in the Milky Way Galaxy estimated spectroscopically
Z Element Mass fraction (ppm)
1 Hydrogen 739,000
2 Helium 240,000
8 Oxygen 10,400
6 Carbon 4,600
10 Neon 1,340
26 Iron 1,090
7 Nitrogen 960
14 Silicon 650
12 Magnesium 580
16 Sulfur 440

Sun and solar system

ElementalAbundance.svg

  • S1 — Sun: Kaye & Laby
  • Y1 — Solar system: Kaye & Laby
  • Y2 — Solar system: Ahrens, with uncertainty s (%)

Atom mole fraction relative to silicon = 1.

S1 Y1 Y2
01 H hydrogen 28000.0002.8×104 28000.0002.8×104* 27900.0002.79×104
02 He helium 02700.0002.7×103 02700.0002.7×103* 02720.0002.72×103
03 Li lithium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.0000575.7×10−5 0.00005715.71×10−5 (9.2%)
04 Be beryllium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.000000737.30×10−7 (9.5%)
05 B boron 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000212.1×10−5 0.00002122.12×10−5 (10%)
06 C carbon 00010.0001.0×101 00010.0001.0×101* 00010.1001.01×101
07 N nitrogen 00003.10003.1×100 00003.10003.1×100* 00003.13003.13×100
08 O oxygen 00024.0002.4×101 00024.0002.4×101* 00023.8002.38×101 (10%)
09 F fluorine 0.001about 1.0×10−3 0.000858.5×10−4 0.0008438.43×10−4 (15%)
10 Ne neon 00003.0003.0×100 00003.0003.0×100* 00003.4403.44×100 (14%)
11 Na sodium 0.0606.0×10−2 0.0575.7×10−2 0.05745.74×10−2 (7.1%)
12 Mg magnesium 00001.0001.0×100 00001.1001.1×100 00001.0741.074×100 (3.8%)
13 Al aluminium 0.0838.3×10−2 0.0858.5×10−2 0.08498.49×10−2 (3.6%)
14 Si silicon 00001.0001.0×100 00001.0001.0×100 00001.0001.0×100 (4.4%)
15 P phosphorus 0.0088.0×10−3 0.0101.0×10−2 0.01041.04×10−2 (10%)
16 S sulfur 0.454.5×10−1 0.525.2×10−1 0.5155.15×10−1 (13%)
17 Cl chlorine 0.009about 9.0×10−3 0.00525.2×10−3 0.005245.24×10−3 (15%)
18 Ar argon 0.1001.0×10−1* 0.1001.0×10−1* 0.1011.01×10−1 (6%)
19 K potassium 0.00373.7×10−3 0.00383.8×10−3 0.003773.77×10−3 (7.7%)
20 Ca calcium 0.0646.4×10−2 0.0616.1×10−2 0.06116.11×10−2 (7.1%)
21 Sc scandium 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000343.4×10−5 0.00003423.42×10−5 (8.6%)
22 Ti titanium 0.00272.7×10−3 0.00242.4×10−3 0.00242.40×10−3 (5.0%)
23 V vanadium 0.000282.8×10−4 0.000292.9×10−4 0.0002932.93×10−4 (5.1%)
24 Cr chromium 0.0131.3×10−2 0.0131.3×10−2 0.01351.35×10−2 (7.6%)
25 Mn manganese 0.00696.9×10−3 0.00959.5×10−3 0.009559.55×10−3 (9.6%)
26 Fe iron 0.9009.0×10−1 0.9009.0×10−1 0.9009.00×10−1 (2.7%)
27 Co cobalt 0.00232.3×10−3 0.00232.3×10−3 0.002252.25×10−3 (6.6%)
28 Ni nickel 0.055.0×10−2 0.055.0×10−2 0.04934.93×10−2 (5.1%)
29 Cu copper 0.000454.5×10−4 0.000525.2×10−4 0.0005225.22×10−4 (11%)
30 Zn zinc 0.00111.1×10−3 0.00131.3×10−3 0.001261.26×10−3 (4.4%)
31 Ga gallium 0.0000212.1×10−5 0.0000383.8×10−5 0.00003783.78×10−5 (6.9%)
32 Ge germanium 0.0000727.2×10−5 0.000121.2×10−4 0.0001191.19×10−4 (9.6%)
33 As arsenic 0.000 0.00000666.6×10−6 0.000006566.56×10−6 (12%)
34 Se selenium 0.000 0.0000636.3×10−5 0.00006216.21×10−5 (6.4%)
35 Br bromine 0.000 0.0000121.2×10−5 0.00001181.18×10−5 (19%)
36 Kr krypton 0.000 0.0000484.8×10−5 0.0000454.50×10−5 (18%)
37 Rb rubidium 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000077.0×10−6 0.000007097.09×10−6 (6.6%)
38 Sr strontium 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000242.4×10−5 0.00002352.35×10−5 (8.1%)
39 Y yttrium 0.00000494.9×10−6 0.00000464.6×10−6 0.000004644.64×10−6 (6.0%)
40 Zr zirconium 0.00001121.12×10−5 0.00001141.14×10−5 0.00001141.14×10−5 (6.4%)
41 Nb niobium 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.00000077.0×10−7 0.0000006986.98×10−7 (1.4%)
42 Mo molybdenum 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.00000262.6×10−6 0.000002552.55×10−6 (5.5%)
43 Tc technetium 0.000 0.000 0.000
44 Ru ruthenium 0.00000191.9×10−6 0.00000191.9×10−6 0.000001861.86×10−6 (5.4%)
45 Rh rhodium 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.0000003443.44×10−7 (8%)
46 Pd palladium 0.00000141.4×10−6 0.00000141.4×10−6 0.000001391.39×10−6 (6.6%)
47 Ag silver 0.0000002about 2.0×10−7 0.000000494.9×10−7 0.0000004864.86×10−7 (2.9%)
48 Cd cadmium 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.000001611.61×10−6 (6.5%)
49 In indium 0.0000013about 1.3×10−6 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001841.84×10−7 (6.4%)
50 Sn tin 0.000003about 3.0×10−6 0.00000393.9×10−6 0.000003823.82×10−6 (9.4%)
51 Sb antimony 0.0000003about 3.0×10−7 0.000000313.1×10−7 0.0000003093.09×10−7 (18%)
52 Te tellurium 0.000 0.00000494.9×10−6 0.000004814.81×10−6 (10%)
53 I iodine 0.000 0.00000099.0×10−7 0.00000099.00×10−7 (21%)
54 Xe xenon 0.000 0.00000484.8×10−6 0.00000474.70×10−6 (20%)
55 Cs caesium 0.000 0.000000373.7×10−7 0.0000003723.72×10−7 (5.6%)
56 Ba barium 0.00000383.8×10−6 0.00000454.5×10−6 0.000004494.49×10−6 (6.3%)
57 La lanthanum 0.00000055.0×10−7 0.000000444.4×10−7 0.0000004464.46×10−7 (2.0%)
58 Ce cerium 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000111.1×10−6 0.0000011361.136×10−6 (1.7%)
59 Pr praseodymium 0.000000141.4×10−7 0.000000171.7×10−7 0.00000016691.669×10−7 (2.4%)
60 Nd neodymium 0.00000099.0×10−7 0.000000838.3×10−7 0.00000082798.279×10−7 (1.3%)
61 Pm promethium 0.000 0.000 0.000
62 Sm samarium 0.00000033.0×10−7 0.000000262.6×10−7 0.00000025822.582×10−7 (1.3%)
63 Eu europium 0.000000099.0×10−8 0.0000000979.7×10−8 0.00000009739.73×10−8 (1.6%)
64 Gd gadolinium 0.000000373.7×10−7 0.000000333.3×10−7 0.000000333.30×10−7 (1.4%)
65 Tb terbium 0.000000002about 2.0×10−8 0.0000000606.0×10−8 0.00000006036.03×10−8 (2.2%)
66 Dy dysprosium 0.000000353.5×10−7 0.00000044.0×10−7 0.00000039423.942×10−7 (1.4%)
67 Ho holmium 0.00000005about 5.0×10−8 0.0000000898.9×10−8 0.00000008898.89×10−8 (2.4%)
68 Er erbium 0.000000242.4×10−7 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000025082.508×10−7 (1.3%)
69 Tm thulium 0.00000003about 3.0×10−8 0.0000000383.8×10−8 0.00000003783.78×10−8 (2.3%)
70 Yb ytterbium 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000024792.479×10−7 (1.6%)
71 Lu lutetium 0.00000015about 1.5×10−7 0.0000000373.7×10−8 0.00000003673.67×10−8 (1.3%)
72 Hf hafnium 0.000000212.1×10−7 0.000000151.5×10−7 0.0000001541.54×10−7 (1.9%)
73 Ta tantalum 0.000 0.0000000383.8×10−8 0.00000002072.07×10−8 (1.8%)
74 W tungsten 0.00000036about 3.6×10−7 0.000000131.3×10−7 0.0000001331.33×10−7 (5.1%)
75 Re rhenium 0.000 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.00000005175.17×10−8 (9.4%)
76 Os osmium 0.00000088.0×10−7 0.000000676.7×10−7 0.0000006756.75×10−7 (6.3%)
77 Ir iridium 0.00000066.0×10−7 0.000000666.6×10−7 0.0000006616.61×10−7 (6.1%)
78 Pt platinum 0.0000018about 1.8×10−6 0.000001341.34×10−6 0.000001341.34×10−6 (7.4%)
79 Au gold 0.0000003about 3.0×10−7 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001871.87×10−7 (15%)
80 Hg mercury 0.000 0.000000343.4×10−7 0.000000343.40×10−7 (12%)
81 Tl thallium 0.0000002about 2.0×10−7 0.000000191.9×10−7 0.0000001841.84×10−7 (9.4%)
82 Pb lead 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000313.1×10−6 0.000003153.15×10−6 (7.8%)
83 Bi bismuth 0.000 0.000000141.4×10−7 0.0000001441.44×10−7 (8.2%)
84 Po polonium 0.000 0.000 0.000
85 At astatine 0.000 0.000 0.000
86 Rn radon 0.000 0.000 0.000
87 Fr francium 0.000 0.000 0.000
88 Ra radium 0.000 0.000 0.000
89 Ac actinium 0.000 0.000 0.000
90 Th thorium 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.0000000454.5×10−8 0.00000003353.35×10−8 (5.7%)
91 Pa protactinium 0.000 0.000 0.000
92 U uranium 0.000 0.0000000181.8×10−8 0.0000000099.00×10−9 (8.4%)
93 Np neptunium 0.000 0.000 0.000
94 Pu plutonium 0.000 0.000 0.000

Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust

  • C1 — Crust: CRC Handbook
  • C2 — Crust: Kaye and Laby
  • C3 — Crust: Greenwood
  • C4 — Crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • C5 — Crust: Ahrens (Wänke)
  • C6 — Crust: Ahrens (Weaver)
  • U1 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Taylor)
  • U2 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Shaw)
Mass fraction, in kg/kg
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 U1 U2
01 H hydrogen 0.00141.40×10−3 0.001521.520×10−3
02 He helium 0.000000008008×10−9
03 Li lithium 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000181.8×10−5 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.00001371.37×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5
04 Be beryllium 0.00000282.8×10−6 0.00000202.0×10−6 0.00000202×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6 0.00000303.000×10−6
05 B boron 0.0000101.0×10−5 0.00000707.0×10−6 0.00000909×10−6 0.0000101.0000×10−5 0.00001501.5000×10−5
06 C carbon 0.000202.00×10−4 0.0001801.80×10−4 0.0037603.76×10−3
07 N nitrogen 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000202.0×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5
08 O oxygen 0.4614.61×10−1 0.3703.7×10−1 0.4554.55000×10−1
09 F fluorine 0.0005855.85×10−4 0.000464.6×10−4 0.0005445.44×10−4 0.0005255.25×10−4
10 Ne neon 0.00000000505×10−9
11 Na sodium 0.02362.36×10−2 0.0232.3×10−2 0.0272.2700×10−2 0.0232.3000×10−2 0.02442.4400×10−2 0.0313.1000×10−2 0.02892.89×10−2 0.02572.57×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 0.02332.33×10−2 0.0282.8×10−2 0.027642.7640×10−2 0.0323.20×10−2 0.02372.37×10−2 0.01691.69×10−2 0.01331.33×10−2 0.01351.35×10−2
13 Al aluminium 0.08238.23×10−2 0.088.0×10−2 0.0838.3000×10−2 0.08418.4100×10−2 0.083058.3050×10−2 0.08528.5200×10−2 0.08048.0400×10−2 0.07747.7400×10−2
14 Si silicon 0.2822.82×10−1 0.272.7×10−1 0.2722.72000×10−1 0.26772.677×10−1 0.2812.81×10−1 0.2952.95×10−1 0.3083.08×10−1 0.3043.04×10−1
15 P phosphorus 0.001051.05×10−3 0.0011.0×10−3 0.001121.120×10−3 0.0007637.63×10−4 0.000838.30×10−4
16 S sulfur 0.000353.50×10−4 0.00033.0×10−4 0.000343.40×10−4 0.0008818.81×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 0.0001451.45×10−4 0.000191.9×10−4 0.0001261.26×10−4 0.00191.900×10−3
18 Ar argon 0.00000353.5×10−6
19 K potassium 0.02092.09×10−2 0.0171.7×10−2 0.01841.8400×10−2 0.00919.100×10−3 0.01761.7600×10−2 0.0171.7000×10−2 0.0282.8000×10−2 0.02572.5700×10−2
20 Ca calcium 0.04154.15×10−2 0.0515.1×10−2 0.04664.6600×10−2 0.05295.2900×10−2 0.04924.9200×10−2 0.0343.4000×10−2 0.033.0000×10−2 0.02952.9500×10−2
21 Sc scandium 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.00003003.0×10−5 0.00002142.14×10−5 0.0000111.1×10−5 0.0000077×10−6
22 Ti titanium 0.005655.65×10−3 0.00868.6×10−3 0.006326.320×10−3 0.00545.400×10−3 0.005255.250×10−3 0.00363.600×10−3 0.0033.000×10−3 0.003123.120×10−3
23 V vanadium 0.000121.20×10−4 0.000171.7×10−4 0.0001361.36×10−4 0.000232.30×10−4 0.0001341.34×10−4 0.00006006.0×10−5 0.0000535.3×10−5
24 Cr chromium 0.0001021.02×10−4 0.0000969.6×10−5 0.0001221.22×10−4 0.0001851.85×10−4 0.0001461.46×10−4 0.0000565.6×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5
25 Mn manganese 0.000959.50×10−4 0.0011.0×10−3 0.001061.060×10−3 0.001041.400×10−3 0.0008478.47×10−4 0.0011.000×10−3 0.00066.00×10−4 0.0005275.27×10−4
26 Fe iron 0.05635.63×10−2 0.0585.8×10−2 0.0626.2000×10−2 0.07077.07×10−2 0.04924.92×10−2 0.0383.8×10−2 0.0353.50×10−2 0.03093.09×10−2
27 Co cobalt 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.0000282.8×10−5 0.0000292.9×10−5 0.0000292.9×10−5 0.00002542.54×10−5 0.00001001.0×10−5 0.0000121.2×10−5
28 Ni nickel 0.0000848.4×10−5 0.0000727.2×10−5 0.0000999.9×10−5 0.0001051.05×10−4 0.00006956.95×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000202×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5
29 Cu copper 0.000066.0×10−5 0.0000585.8×10−5 0.0000686.8×10−5 0.0000757.5×10−5 0.0000474.7×10−5 0.0000252.5×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5
30 Zn zinc 0.000077.0×10−5 0.0000828.2×10−5 0.0000767.6×10−5 0.000088.0×10−5 0.0000767.6×10−5 0.0000717.1×10−5 0.0000525.2×10−5
31 Ga gallium 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000171.7×10−5 0.0000191.9×10−5 0.0000181.8×10−5 0.00001861.86×10−5 0.0000171.7×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5
32 Ge germanium 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.000001321.32×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6
33 As arsenic 0.00000181.8×10−6 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000181.8×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.000002032.03×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6
34 Se selenium 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.000000055×10−8 0.0000001531.53×10−7 0.000000055×10−8
35 Br bromine 0.00000242.4×10−6 0.0000044.0×10−6 0.00000252.5×10−6 0.000006956.95×10−6
36 Kr krypton 0.00000000011×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 0.0000909.0×10−5 0.0000707.0×10−5 0.0000787.8×10−5 0.0000323.2×10−5 0.0000797.90×10−5 0.0000616.1×10−5 0.000121.12×10−4 0.000111.10×10−4
38 Sr strontium 0.000373.70×10−4 0.000454.5×10−4 0.0003843.84×10−4 0.000262.60×10−4 0.0002932.93×10−4 0.0005035.03×10−4 0.000353.50×10−4 0.0003163.16×10−4
39 Y yttrium 0.0000333.3×10−5 0.000000353.5×10−7 0.0000313.1×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.0000141.4×10−5 0.0000222.2×10−5 0.0000212.1×10−5
40 Zr zirconium 0.0001651.65×10−4 0.000141.4×10−4 0.0001621.62×10−4 0.0001001.00×10−4 0.000212.10×10−4 0.000191.90×10−4 0.000242.40×10−4
41 Nb niobium 0.000022.0×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.000022.0×10−5 0.0000111.1000×10−5 0.0000131.3000×10−5 0.0000252.5000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5
42 Mo molybdenum 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6
43 Tc technetium
44 Ru ruthenium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10
45 Rh rhodium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10
46 Pd palladium 0.0000000151.5×10−8 0.0000000033×10−9 0.0000000151.5×10−8 0.0000000011.0×10−9 0.00000000055×10−10
47 Ag silver 0.0000000757.5×10−8 0.000000088×10−8 0.000000088×10−8 0.000000088.0×10−8 0.00000006956.95×10−8 0.000000055.0×10−8
48 Cd cadmium 0.000000151.5×10−7 0.000000181.8×10−7 0.000000161.6×10−7 0.0000000989.8×10−8 0.00000011.00×10−7 0.0000000989.8×10−8
49 In indium 0.000000252.5×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.000000242.4×10−7 0.000000055.0×10−8 0.00000006956.95×10−8 0.000000055.0×10−8
50 Sn tin 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.00000151.5×10−6 0.00000212.1×10−6 0.00000252.500×10−6 0.00000555.500×10−6
51 Sb antimony 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022×10−7 0.00000022.00×10−7 0.0000002032.03×10−7 0.00000022.00×10−7
52 Te tellurium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9 0.000000002032.03×10−9
53 I iodine 0.000000454.5×10−7 0.00000055×10−7 0.000000464.6×10−7 0.000001541.540×10−6
54 Xe xenon 0.000000000033×10−11
55 Cs caesium 0.000003003×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000262.6×10−6 0.000001001.000×10−6 0.000001311.310×10−6 0.00000373.700×10−6
56 Ba barium 0.0004254.25×10−4 0.000383.8×10−4 0.000393.90×10−4 0.000252.50000×10−4 0.0005425.42000×10−4 0.0007077.07000×10−4 0.000555.50000×10−4 0.001071.070000×10−3
57 La lanthanum 0.0000393.9×10−5 0.000055.0×10−5 0.0000353.5×10−5 0.0000161.6000×10−5 0.0000292.9000×10−5 0.0000282.8000×10−5 0.000033.0000×10−5 0.00000323.200×10−6
58 Ce cerium 0.00006656.65×10−5 0.0000838.3×10−5 0.0000666.6×10−5 0.0000333.3000×10−5 0.00005425.4200×10−5 0.0000575.7000×10−5 0.0000646.4000×10−5 0.0000656.5000×10−5
59 Pr praseodymium 0.00000929.2×10−6 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.00000919.1×10−6 0.00000393.900×10−6 0.00000717.100×10−6
60 Nd neodymium 0.00004154.15×10−5 0.0000444.4×10−5 0.000044.0×10−5 0.0000161.6000×10−5 0.00002542.5400×10−5 0.0000232.3000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5 0.0000262.6000×10−5
61 Pm promethium
62 Sm samarium 0.000007057.05×10−6 0.00000777.7×10−6 0.0000077.0×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6 0.000005595.590×10−6 0.00000414.100×10−6 0.00000454.500×10−6 0.00000454.500×10−6
63 Eu europium 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000222.2×10−6 0.00000212.1×10−6 0.00000111.100×10−6 0.0000014071.407×10−6 0.000001091.090×10−6 0.000000888.80×10−7 0.000000949.40×10−7
64 Gd gadolinium 0.00000626.2×10−6 0.00000636.3×10−6 0.00000616.1×10−6 0.00000333.300×10−6 0.000008148.140×10−6 0.00000383.800×10−6 0.00000282.800×10−6
65 Tb terbium 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.00000066.00×10−7 0.000001021.020×10−6 0.000000535.30×10−7 0.000000646.40×10−7 0.000000484.80×10−7
66 Dy dysprosium 0.00000525.2×10−6 0.00000858.5×10−6 0.00000373.700×10−6 0.0000061026.102×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6
67 Ho holmium 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.000000787.80×10−7 0.000001861.860×10−6 0.00000088.00×10−7 0.000000626.20×10−7
68 Er erbium 0.00000353.5×10−6 0.00000363.6×10−6 0.00000353.5×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.000003393.390×10−6 0.00000232.300×10−6
69 Tm thulium 0.000000525.2×10−7 0.000000525.2×10−7 0.00000055×10−7 0.000000323.20×10−7 0.000000242.40×10−7 0.000000333.30×10−7
70 Yb ytterbium 0.00000323.2×10−6 0.00000343.4×10−6 0.00000313.1×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.000003393.390×10−6 0.000001531.530×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6 0.00000151.500×10−6
71 Lu lutetium 0.000000808×10−7 0.000000808×10−7 0.000000303.00×10−7 0.0000005765.76×10−7 0.000000232.30×10−7 0.000000323.20×10−7 0.000000232.30×10−7
72 Hf hafnium 0.000003003.0×10−6 0.000004004×10−6 0.00000282.8×10−6 0.000003003.000×10−6 0.000003463.460×10−6 0.00000474.700×10−6 0.00000585.800×10−6 0.00000585.800×10−6
73 Ta tantalum 0.0000022.0×10−6 0.00000242.4×10−6 0.00000171.7×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.0000022032.203×10−6 0.00000222.200×10−6
74 W tungsten 0.000001251.25×10−6 0.0000011.0×10−6 0.00000121.2×10−6 0.0000011.000×10−6 0.000001311.310×10−6 0.0000022.000×10−6
75 Re rhenium 0.00000000077×10−10 0.00000000044×10−10 0.00000000077×10−10 0.00000000055×10−10 0.000000001021.02×10−9 0.00000000055×10−10
76 Os osmium 0.00000000151.5×10−9 0.00000000022×10−10 0.0000000055×10−9 0.000000001021.02×10−9
77 Ir iridium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000022×10−10 0.0000000011×10−9 0.00000000011×10−10 0.000000001021.02×10−9 0.000000000022×10−11
78 Pt platinum 0.0000000055×10−9 0.000000011×10−8
79 Au gold 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000022×10−9 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000033.0×10−9 0.000000004074.07×10−9 0.00000000181.8×10−9
80 Hg mercury 0.0000000858.5×10−8 0.000000022×10−8 0.000000088×10−8
81 Tl thallium 0.000000858.5×10−7 0.000000474.7×10−7 0.00000077×10−7 0.000000363.60×10−7 0.000000757.50×10−7 0.000000525.20×10−7
82 Pb lead 0.0000141.4×10−5 0.000011.0×10−5 0.0000131.3×10−5 0.0000088.000×10−6 0.0000151.5000×10−5 0.000022.0000×10−5 0.0000171.7000×10−5
83 Bi bismuth 0.00000000858.5×10−9 0.0000000044×10−9 0.0000000088×10−9 0.000000066.0×10−8 0.0000001271.27×10−7
84 Po polonium 0.00000000000000022×10−16
85 At astatine
86 Rn radon 0.00000000000000000044×10−19
87 Fr francium
88 Ra radium 0.00000000000099×10−13
89 Ac actinium 0.000000000000000555.5×10−16
90 Th thorium 0.00000969.6×10−6 0.00000585.8×10−6 0.00000818.1×10−6 0.00000353.500×10−6 0.00000575.700×10−6 0.00001071.0700×10−5 0.000011.0000×10−5
91 Pa protactinium 0.00000000000141.4×10−12
92 U uranium 0.00000272.7×10−6 0.00000161.6×10−6 0.00000232.3×10−6 0.000000919.10×10−7 0.00000121.200×10−6 0.00000131.300×10−6 0.00000282.800×10−6 0.00000252.500×10−6
93 Np neptunium
94 Pu plutonium

Urban soils

The established abundances of chemical elements in urban soils can be considered a geochemical (ecological and geochemical) characteristic, the accumulated impact of technogenic and natural processes at the beginning of the 21st century. The figures estimate average concentrations of chemical elements in the soils of more than 300 cities and settlements in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and America.[1] Regardless of significant differences between abundances of several elements in urban soils and those values calculated for the Earth's crust, the element abundances in urban soils generally reflect those in the Earth's crust. With the development of technology the abundances may be refined.

Mass fraction, in mg/kg (ppm).

Element Atomic number Abundance in urban soils
Ag 47 0.37
Al 13 38200
As 33 15.9
B 5 45
Ba 56 853.12
Be 4 3.3
Bi 83 1.12
C 6 45100
Ca 20 53800
Cd 48 0.9
Cl 17 285
Co 27 14.1
Cr 24 80
Cs 55 5.0
Cu 29 39
Fe 26 22300
Ga 31 16.2
Ge 32 1.8
H 1 15000
Hg 80 0.88
K 19 13400
La 57 34
Li 3 49.5
Mg 12 7900
Mn 25 729
Mo 42 2.4
N 7 10000
Na 11 5800
Nb 41 15.7
Ni 28 33
O 8 490000
P 15 1200
Pb 82 54.5
Rb 37 58
S 16 1200
Sb 51 1.0
Sc 21 9.4
Si 14 289000
Sn 50 6.8
Sr 38 458
Ta 73 1.5
Ti 22 4758
Tl 81 1.1
V 23 104.9
W 74 2.9
Y 39 23.4
Yb 70 2.4
Zn 30 158
Zr 40 255.6

Sea water

  • W1 — CRC Handbook
  • W2 — Kaye & Laby

Mass per volume fraction, in kg/L. (The average density of sea water in the surface is 1.025 kg/L)

W1 W2
01 H hydrogen 0.1081.08×10−1 0.1101.1×10−1
02 He helium 0.00000000000707×10−12 0.00000000000727.2×10−12
03 Li lithium 0.000000181.8×10−7 0.000000171.7×10−7
04 Be beryllium 0.00000000000565.6×10−12 0.00000000000066×10−13
05 B boron 0.000004444.44×10−6 0.00000444.4×10−6
06 C carbon 0.0000282.8×10−5 0.0000282.8×10−5
07 N nitrogen 0.00000055×10−7 0.0000161.6×10−5
08 O oxygen 0.8578.57×10−1 0.888.8×10−1
09 F fluorine 0.00000131.3×10−6 0.00000131.3×10−6
10 Ne neon 0.000000000121.2×10−10 0.000000000121.2×10−10
11 Na sodium 0.01081.08×10−2 0.0111.1×10−2
12 Mg magnesium 0.001291.29×10−3 0.00131.3×10−3
13 Al aluminium 0.0000000022×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9
14 Si silicon 0.00000222.2×10−6 0.00000292.9×10−6
15 P phosphorus 0.000000066×10−8 0.0000000888.8×10−8
16 S sulfur 0.0009059.05×10−4 0.00099.0×10−4
17 Cl chlorine 0.01941.94×10−2 0.0191.9×10−2
18 Ar argon 0.000000454.5×10−7 0.000000454.5×10−7
19 K potassium 0.0003993.99×10−4 0.000393.9×10−4
20 Ca calcium 0.0004124.12×10−4 0.000414.1×10−4
21 Sc scandium 0.00000000000066×10−13 0.000000000004< 4×10−12
22 Ti titanium 0.0000000011×10−9 0.0000000011×10−9
23 V vanadium 0.00000000252.5×10−9 0.00000000191.9×10−9
24 Cr chromium 0.00000000033×10−10 0.00000000022×10−10
25 Mn manganese 0.00000000022×10−10 0.00000000191.9×10−9
26 Fe iron 0.0000000022×10−9 0.00000000343.4×10−9
27 Co cobalt 0.000000000022×10−11 0.000000000393.9×10−10
28 Ni nickel 0.000000000565.6×10−10 0.00000000666.6×10−9
29 Cu copper 0.000000000252.5×10−10 0.0000000232.3×10−8
30 Zn zinc 0.00000000494.9×10−9 0.0000000111.1×10−8
31 Ga gallium 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000033×10−11
32 Ge germanium 0.000000000055×10−11 0.000000000066×10−11
33 As arsenic 0.00000000373.7×10−9 0.00000000262.6×10−9
34 Se selenium 0.00000000022×10−10 0.000000000099.0×10−11
35 Br bromine 0.00006736.73×10−5 0.0000676.7×10−5
36 Kr krypton 0.000000000212.1×10−10 0.000000000212.1×10−10
37 Rb rubidium 0.000000121.2×10−7 0.000000121.2×10−7
38 Sr strontium 0.00000797.9×10−6 0.00000818.1×10−6
39 Y yttrium 0.0000000000131.3×10−11 0.00000000000131.3×10−12
40 Zr zirconium 0.000000000033×10−11 0.0000000000262.6×10−11
41 Nb niobium 0.000000000011×10−11 0.0000000000151.5×10−11
42 Mo molybdenum 0.000000011×10−8 0.000000011.0×10−8
43 Tc technetium 0.0 0.0
44 Ru ruthenium 0.00000000000077×10−13 0.0
45 Rh rhodium 0.0 0.0
46 Pd palladium 0.0 0.0
47 Ag silver 0.000000000044×10−11 0.000000000282.8×10−10
48 Cd cadmium 0.000000000111.1×10−10 0.000000000111.1×10−10
49 In indium 0.000000022×10−8 0.0
50 Sn tin 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.000000000818.1×10−10
51 Sb antimony 0.000000000242.4×10−10 0.000000000333.3×10−10
52 Te tellurium 0.0 0.0
53 I iodine 0.000000066×10−8 0.0000000646.4×10−8
54 Xe xenon 0.000000000055×10−11 0.0000000000474.7×10−11
55 Cs caesium 0.00000000033×10−10 0.00000000033.0×10−10
56 Ba barium 0.0000000131.3×10−8 0.0000000212.1×10−8
57 La lanthanum 0.00000000000343.4×10−12 0.00000000000343.4×10−12
58 Ce cerium 0.00000000000121.2×10−12 0.00000000000121.2×10−12
59 Pr praseodymium 0.000000000000646.4×10−13 0.000000000000646.4×10−13
60 Nd neodymium 0.00000000000282.8×10−12 0.00000000000282.8×10−12
61 Pm promethium 0.0 0.0
62 Sm samarium 0.000000000000454.5×10−13 0.000000000000454.5×10−13
63 Eu europium 0.000000000000131.3×10−13 0.000000000000131.3×10−13
64 Gd gadolinium 0.00000000000077×10−13 0.00000000000077.0×10−13
65 Tb terbium 0.000000000000141.4×10−13 0.00000000000141.4×10−12
66 Dy dysprosium 0.000000000000919.1×10−13 0.000000000000919.1×10−13
67 Ho holmium 0.000000000000222.2×10−13 0.000000000000222.2×10−13
68 Er erbium 0.000000000000878.7×10−13 0.00000000000878.7×10−12
69 Tm thulium 0.000000000000171.7×10−13 0.000000000000171.7×10−13
70 Yb ytterbium 0.000000000000828.2×10−13 0.000000000000828.2×10−13
71 Lu lutetium 0.000000000000151.5×10−13 0.000000000000151.5×10−13
72 Hf hafnium 0.0000000000077×10−12 0.000000000008< 8×10−12
73 Ta tantalum 0.0000000000022×10−12 0.0000000000025< 2.5×10−12
74 W tungsten 0.00000000011×10−10 0.000000000001< 1×10−12
75 Re rhenium 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.0
76 Os osmium 0.0 0.0
77 Ir iridium 0.0 0.0
78 Pt platinum 0.0 0.0
79 Au gold 0.0000000000044×10−12 0.0000000000111.1×10−11
80 Hg mercury 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000151.5×10−10
81 Tl thallium 0.0000000000191.9×10−11 0.0
82 Pb lead 0.000000000033×10−11 0.000000000033×10−11
83 Bi bismuth 0.000000000022×10−11 0.000000000022×10−11
84 Po polonium 0.0000000000000000000151.5×10−20 0.0
85 At astatine 0.0 0.0
86 Rn radon 0.00000000000000000000066×10−22 0.0
87 Fr francium 0.0 0.0
88 Ra radium 0.0000000000000000898.9×10−17 0.0
89 Ac actinium 0.0 0.0
90 Th thorium 0.0000000000011×10−12 0.00000000000151.5×10−12
91 Pa protactinium 0.000000000000000055×10−17 0.0
92 U uranium 0.00000000323.2×10−9 0.00000000333.3×10−9
93 Np neptunium 0.0 0.0
94 Pu plutonium 0.0 0.0

Notes

Due to the estimate nature of these values, no single recommendations are given. All values are normalized for these tables. Underlined zeroes indicate figures of indeterminable significance that were present in the source notation.

References

  1. Vladimir Alekseenko; Alexey Alekseenko (2014). "The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils". Journal of Geochemical Exploration 147: 245–249. . . 
This page uses content that though originally imported from the Wikipedia article Abundances of the elements (data page) might have been very heavily modified, perhaps even to the point of disagreeing completely with the original wikipedia article.
The list of authors can be seen in the page history. The text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Licence.
This page uses content that though originally imported from the Wikipedia article Abundance of the chemical elements might have been very heavily modified, perhaps even to the point of disagreeing completely with the original wikipedia article.
The list of authors can be seen in the page history. The text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Licence.
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